[ti:Study: Replacing Fossil Fuels in US Could Cost $4.7 Trillion] [by:蜗蜗牛小游戏网 www.liandama.cn] [00:00.00]更多听力请访问www.liandama.cn [00:00.01]A new study has found that replacing fossil fuel power systems in the United States could cost up to $4.7 trillion. [00:13.42]The study was released by energy research company Wood Mackenzie. [00:21.22]The company is based in Edinburgh, Scotland. [00:26.23]The report includes one of the first independent cost estimates for completely ending power sources that produce carbon pollution. [00:39.56]Some American politicians support the complete replacement of all fossil fuel-based energy sources in the United States with zero carbon systems. [00:55.24]The study estimates this could cost at least $4.7 trillion and could present major economic and social difficulties. [01:07.29]The total would amount to about $35,000 per U.S. household, the study found. [01:16.97]Several Democratic presidential candidates have proposed their own plans to reach the goal of zero carbon emissions. [01:28.30]Former Vice President Joe Biden has said his plan would cost about $1.7 trillion. [01:37.66]Another candidate, Beto O'Rourke, has proposed a $5-trillion plan to get to zero emissions. [01:48.25]Democratic U.S. House member Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, who represents New York, [01:57.07]helped create a "Green New Deal" proposal that seeks to solve several major environmental issues. [02:05.99]It has been estimated to cost around $10 trillion. [02:12.19]Such ideas seek to appeal to a growing sense of urgency about climate change on both sides of the political divide. [02:24.38]But many Republicans, including President Donald Trump, [02:29.44]have criticized the Democratic proposals as being costly and impossible to carry out. [02:37.36]They say the plans would harm the economy. [02:42.02]A public opinion study released last week by Reuters/Ipsos showed [02:50.01]that most Americans support "aggressive" climate change action like that proposed by Democrats. [02:58.84]But that support falls sharply if individuals sense the plans would personally cost them. [03:07.71]Wood Mackenzie's report centers only on the costs to replace fossil fuel sources used to generate power. [03:18.71]One of the main fossil fuel sources for U.S. power plants is coal. [03:24.98]Coal plants give off air pollutants and heat-trapping gases that have been linked to climate change. [03:33.78]The study said the change from fossil fuels to green sources would require "a complete redesign" of the current power system. [03:45.81]It estimated that 1,600 gigawatts of wind and solar capacity would have to be added, at a cost of around $1.5 trillion. [04:00.39]That is more than 11 times the nation's current wind and solar capacity. [04:07.84]Even though the costs of wind and solar have been dropping, a sharp increase in demand could drive prices up, the study noted. [04:18.90]The report estimated that more than 320,000 kilometers of electrical wires [04:27.77]would have to be added to carry wind and solar energy from rural areas to major cities. [04:35.89]The estimated cost for that effort would be about $700 billion. [04:43.44]The study noted that major costs could be reduced [04:48.74]if the process of completely moving away from fossil fuel sources took place over a longer period of time. [04:58.51]I'm Bryan Lynn. 更多听力请访问www.liandama.cn